Widespread; closely associated with wetlands, rivers and streams.
Watercourses, wet and waterlogged woodland and carr.
Will grow in most soils and situations, including waterlogged sites. Light demanding.
A useful fast growing pioneer species on wet or infertile sites. Suitable as a woodland species on wetter ground, and as a nitrogen fixing nurse on infertile or reclaimed sites. Coppices well.
The existing population is largely wild although commonly planted in land reclamation schemes. Use plants of local or regional provenance. Use plants of local provenance or FC seed zones 302 & 204. Source only from nurseries in northern catchments free from Phytopthera disease.